Twt Hill, Battle of
- (1461)Although a relatively small skirmish, the Battle of Twt Hill (or Tuthill), fought on 16 October 1461, ended open warfare in WALES, and brought all Wales, except HARLECH CASTLE, under the new regime of EDWARD IV. After the Yorkist victory at the Battle of TOWTON in March 1461, Jasper TUDOR, earl of Pembroke, continued to hold the Welsh fortresses of Pembroke, Denbigh, and Harlech for his half brother, HENRY VI. To quell Lancastrian resistance in Wales, Edward accompanied his army to Hereford in September, but left the actual campaigning to his chief Welsh lieutenants, Sir William HERBERT; Henry BOURCHIER, earl of Essex; and Walter DEVEREUX, Lord Ferrers. After a short stay at Ludlow, the king returned to LONDON for the opening of his first PARLIAMENT on 4 November.Meanwhile, the Yorkist commanders captured Pembroke Castle on 30 September, after which Herbert led the bulk of the royal army into North Wales to pursue the earl of Pembroke, who was thought to be hiding in the mountain fastnesses of Snowdon with Henry HOLLAND, duke of Exeter. The duke, who had fought at the Battle of Towton, may have brought reinforcements to Pembroke by sea, for the Lancastrian leaders were able to put a force in the field and meet Herbert in battle at Twt Hill outside the walls of Carnarvon in northwest Wales.Although almost nothing is known of the course of the battle, the result was a complete victory for Herbert, who destroyed the last Lancastrian field force in Wales. Exeter and Pembroke escaped the battle and fled the country, with Pembroke sailing for IRELAND. The defeat isolated the remaining Lancastrian castles; Denbigh surrendered in January 1462, and the western fortress of Carreg Cennen capitulated in May. Although most Welsh Lancastrians had ended active resistance by mid1462, Harlech Castle, which could be resupplied by sea and thus required a costly and difficult effort to reduce, continued in Lancastrian hands until 1468, while all Wales remained vulnerable to seaborne invasion and to the ongoing intrigues of Pembroke.Further Reading: Evans, H.T.,Wales and the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1995); Haigh, Philip A., The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1995).
Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. John A.Wagner. 2001.
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Tuthill, Battle of — see Twt Hill, Battle of … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Chronological Listing of the Battles of the Wars of the Roses — Battle Date St. Albans 22 May 1455 Blore Heath 23 September 1459 Ludford Bridge 12–13 October 1459 Northampton 10 July 1460 Wakefield 30 December 1460 Mortimer’s Cross 2 February 1461 St. Albans 17 February 1461… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Chronology: Wars of the Roses — ♦1399 29 September. Deposition of Richard II; accession of Henry of Bolingbroke as Henry IV, first king of the house of Lancaster. ♦1411 22 September. Birth of Richard Plantagenet, future duke of York. ♦1413 20 March. Death of Henry IV;… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Devereux, Walter, Lord Ferrers of Chartley — (1432–1485) Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers of Chartley, was a loyal adherent of the house of YORK and one of EDWARD IV’s chief lieutenants in WALES. Born into a Herefordshire GENTRY family, Devereux was a councilor of Richard PLANTAGENET,… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Holland, Henry, Duke of Exeter — (1430–1475) By his intervention in the NEVILLE PERCY FEUD in the mid 1450s, Henry Holland (or Holand), fourth duke of Exeter, helped create the political alignments that destabilized royal and local government and brought about the WARS OF THE … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Tudor, Jasper, Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Bedford — (c. 1431–1495) As a half brother of HENRY VI and a member of an ancient Welsh family, Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke, rallied WALES for the house of LANCASTER during the WARS OF THE ROSES. As uncle of Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, the future… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Military Campaigns, Duration of — Although warfare between Englishmen for control of the government or possession of the Crown occurred from the 1450s to the 1490s, fighting was not continuous throughout the period. The military campaigns of the WARS OF THE ROSES were few,… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Herbert, William, Earl of Pembroke — (d. 1469) Entrusted with the government of WALES by EDWARD IV, William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, was one of the few fifteenth century Welshmen to achieve an English PEERAGE and success in English politics. Born into a GENTRY family that had… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Wales — Because many key civil war figures inherited Welsh blood, owned Welsh estates, and recruited Welsh RETAINERS, Wales played a central role in the WARS OF THE ROSES. Wales in the fifteenth century was divided into two distinct administrative… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Harlech Castle — (1461–1468) By holding out for most of the 1460s, the Lancastrian garrison in the Welsh castle at Harlech prevented the establishment of effective Yorkist government in WALES and encouraged Lancastrian resistance throughout England. Harlech … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses